- SKRIPSI THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROCESS APPROACH IN TEACHING WRITING VIEWED FROM STUDENTS LEARNING INTEREST
- SKRIPSI THE EFFECT OF TEACHER CERTIFICATION ON THE QUALITY OF ENGLISH TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS
- SKRIPSI AN ANALYSIS ON THE SPEAKING CLASSROOM INTERACTIONS AT THE TENTH GRADE OF SMA NEGERI X
- SKRIPSI A STUDY ON TEACHING-LEARNING ACTIVITIES AT A DESIGNATED INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SCHOOL
- SKRIPSI A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON CLASSROOM INTERACTION OF ENGLISH TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS IN THE LARGE CLASSES OF THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS IN SMA X
- SKRIPSI THE COOPERATIVE LEARNING THREE-STEP INTERVIEW TOWARDS STUDENTS SPEAKING ABILITY
Posted: 05 Sep 2011 09:45 PM PDT
(KODE : PENDBING-0006) : SKRIPSI THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROCESS APPROACH IN TEACHING WRITING VIEWED FROM STUDENTS' LEARNING INTEREST
This chapter presents the background of the study, problem statements, identification of the problem, limitation of the problems, statement of the problems, and the benefits of the study. Each part will be discussed in different section orderly.
A. Background of the Study
English is still considered one of the most important school subjects and therefore, beginning teachers can find the responsibility of teaching it both exciting and challenging. Everyone agrees that the subject 'English' is vitally important and typically. It is described as the most important of all school subjects, principally because reading, writing, speaking and listening are needed to a greater or lesser degree in every school's subject.
English is also the most consistently controversial and debated subject. It might be argued that English is the subject that many interested parties would most like to control. The history of English is simply a history of constant change. Inevitably, this makes teaching it a special kind of challenge, but it also imbues the subject with energy and excitement. All subjects have their debates and passions but English seems to have the most, and they are very often unusually public and attract plenty of media attention. As media attention is almost inevitably negative, the public perception of English nationally can be that children cannot spell, produce a decent paragraph or even conduct a reasonable conversation; at the same time parents, i.e. members of that 'public', will tell people that their children have received an excellent English teaching at the local school.
Generally speaking, more reading does contribute to greater awareness of the use of language and this will have an impact on pupils' writing. However, this will probably be quite subtle and almost unconsciously achieved as the more sophisticated aspects of language use are adopted in much the same way as grammar is absorbed from birth. But what about those pupils who do not want to read, or do not have the same opportunities to read, or can read at only a decoding level? How do they develop their writing skills?
Writing is one of the most often used skills by the teachers in teaching English at all levels of education. The writing skills include compositions like writing reports, designing posters and invitations, drafting business letters and letters to the editors. Visual and verbal clues can be given to the students as inputs without any additional inputs from the teachers and the students can be asked to form stories, narratives, conclusions, reports and criticisms.
It is undeniable that writing is probably one of the most familiar things in our life. Every day people get written announcements, advertisements, letters, information, even warning in the form of writing. In school, they do a lot of writings such as taking note, making lists, completing laboratory reports and composing any kinds of texts and others. In short, people are consciously or unconsciously engaged in writing a lot. As it becomes crucial to enhance their life, they learn the skills from pre-elementary school to university level. Then, they master them by applying them into business of life.
However learning to write is not an easy task to do. Many students still make errors and mistakes and, then, they are fossilized. Their interest becomes less and less and students begin to create negative stimuli about learning to write. This condition drives the students to assume that writing is a very difficult task to do. Based on the writer's observation in SMK Negeri X in which he teaches English, the task of writing will become more difficult when they have to write in a foreign language like English. The problem emerges as students are not familiar yet with the types of written discourse in English due to lack of exposure. Consequently, they are not able or willing to think directly in English. They, therefore, tend to formulate their ideas in Indonesian language when they express ideas in writing. Afterward they try to translate them in English which is not an easy task and even dangerous.
In fact, the students get insufficient score in writing. They are not able to develop good paragraphs. Although they are able to write paragraphs, they make a lot of grammatical mistakes.
Besides, teachers should be aware of the importance of interest in facilitating and aware of the use of a variety of methods to induce students' interest. Teachers should be able to apply methods that can motivate students to learn English writing and make them actively involved during the instructional activity. In addition, the methods used are hoped can evolve the students' self-confidence and behavior that are creative and innovative.
A good method will have a great influence in teaching learning process. Conversely, if the teacher uses inappropriate method, it will make the students bored in joining the lesson. The learning output, undoubtedly, will not be satisfying. There are several methods that can be used to facilitate learning English writing like process approach and product approach.
Most of traditional approaches of teaching writing focus merely on the product. The production of the composition is structurally correct and well -looking. Unfortunately, this path does not reach the crux of teaching writing itself. In this case the students cannot show up their own ability in writing maximally. They cannot express their ideas. It seems that their ideas just stay put in their mind. This path emphasizes on grammatical correctness and adherence to given models or guidelines only. This method, however, is less effective and makes students having no confidence in expressing their ideas. There is little or no opportunity for the students to add any thoughts or ideas of their own. The inevitable consequence is that little attention is paid to the ideas and meaning of student's writing, what it communicates to the reader, the purpose and the audience (Raimes 1983 : 75). Most students do not know how to do free writing, and they do not possess the strategies for composing texts independently. Furthermore, most of them do not enjoy writing and lack of confidence in writing on their own.
Therefore, the teachers should select and apply an appropriate method and a learning technique in teaching writing that can make the students able to explore and discover their thoughts, construct meaning and asses it at the same time. These characteristics navigate to the process approach. The implementation of process approach is considered as the most appropriate method used to teach writing. In spite of the characteristics possessed by the process approach, this approach can lead the students compose free writing. What is meant by free writing here is a composition that gives freedom to the students to determine the ideas and thoughts about a certain topic given by the teacher. The teacher still determines the framework of the composition that is the genre of the text. By referring to the same genre, the students can freely make their own outline.
By implementing the process approach, the teacher gives opportunities to the students to generate their ideas and thoughts. Consequently, the grammar of the composition might not be totally correct. This condition navigates the teacher to play his role as a guide, a motivator, and also a facilitator. It is important because the ultimate thing that needs to be measured in process approach is the end of the process.
From this idea, the title of this thesis is formulated as follows : THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PROCESS APPROACH IN TEACHING WRITING VIEWED FROM STUDENTS' LEARNING INTEREST (An Experimental Study in SMKN X).
B. Identification of the Problems
The problems that can be identified from the background of the study above are :
1. Students' writing skill is influenced by traininng systematically.
2. Students' writing skill is influenced by the graphics system and spelling convention of language.
3. Students' writing skill is influenced by grammatical knowledge and vocabulary mastery.
4. Students' writing skill is influenced by learning strategies.
5. Students' writing skill is influenced by Process Approach and Product Approach.
C. Limitation of the Problems
Based on the problems that emerge on the identification of the problems above, the research problems are limited to the significant effect of Process Approach viewed from students' learning interest to improve students' English Writing Skill. In this case, the writer merely discusses several genres, i.e. narrative, report, and descriptive. The writer's choice of genre is based on the handout that has been determined by the school.
D. Statement of the Problems
Based on the limitation of the problem above, the problem that will be analyzed in this research is :
1. Is there any difference in English writing skill achievement between students who are taught by process approach and those who are taught by product approach?
2. Is there any difference in English writing skill achievement between students who have high learning interest and those who have low learning interest?
3. Is there the interaction effect between teaching methods and students' learning interest in teaching writing?
E. Objective of the Study
The objectives of the study can be elaborated as follows :
1. To find out whether there is any difference in English writing skill achievement between students who are taught by process approach and those who are taught by product approach.
2. To find out whether there is any difference in English writing skill achievement between students who have high learning interest and those who have low learning interest;
3. To find out whether there is the interaction effect between teaching methods and students' learning interest in teaching writing.
F. Benefits of the Study
The result of the study will be useful for both teachers and students. They might be essential in :
1. Giving information to the students to enrich their insight, and get better learning by which they will be able to improve their writing skill;
2. Giving information to the teachers about process approach and the importance of students' learning interest to improve the students' English writing skill. In addition, the teachers are also motivated to find an active, creative, and fun strategy as an effort to minmize the students' weaknesses and maximize the students' writing skill in vocational high school;
3. Giving reference to other researchers who want to conduct research in the same field or topic.
Posted: 05 Sep 2011 09:43 PM PDT
(KODE : PENDBING-0005) : SKRIPSI THE EFFECT OF TEACHER CERTIFICATION ON THE QUALITY OF ENGLISH TEACHING AND LEARNING PROCESS
A. Background of Study
Education is an effort which is done by people to develop their self-competence through a process of learning. Ernst von Glasersfeld, the "father" of constructivism (in www.englishfirst.com) believes that education has two main purposes : to empower learners to think for themselves, and to promote in the next generation ways of thinking and acting that are deemed important by the present generation. Empowering the learner means that teachers should relinquish some of their power and hand it over to the learner. As mentioned in Undang-Undang Dasar Republik Indonesia Section 31 (1) every citizen has the rights for education, the government gives the same chances for all citizens to get education no matter whether they are rich or poor. This regulation shows that our government does admit the importance of education for their people.
The quality of human resource of a nation is easily judged by the number of literate population living in it. It means that education is a must if a nation aims at achieving growth and development. This may explain the fact that rich and developed nations of the world have very high literacy rate and productive human resource. Realizing the importance of quality education, the government has been doing many steps to develop the education in Indonesia.
The steps include the massive funding of education, the improvement of education qualification, educator competence and certification as well the increase of human resources in education. Among other steps were the application of information communication, and technology (ICT) for e-learning and e-administration programs, the development and reconstruction of education facilities and the substantial reform in textbook supplies for school children.
The government allocated Rp 11,5 trillion for five programs of education in 2007. They are school operational fund (Bantuan Operasional Sekolah/BOS), textbook procurement aid, student special assistance, quality management operational fund and scholarship programs. Since 2005, the ministry of education has applied an ICT-based library network system in 10 state universities and conducted ICT-based learning in 125 senior high schools in 125 regencies across the country. The development of school facilities is also considered to be part of the ministry's breakthroughs. This covers building new schools, state universities, classrooms, libraries and laboratories.
Education facility is not the only education aspect that the government concern with. Since all aspects of education determine the quality of education, teacher, as one of the important components of education, has a vital position in society. Teacher is one of the main pillars of a sound and progressive society. They bear the weight and responsibility of teaching, and, apart from parents, are the main source of knowledge and values for children. He acts as a pivot for the transmission of intellectual traditions and technical skills from generation to generation. He is also being recognized as the most vital factoring any educational system. He is the key of quality education and the foster parent of the child. Child looks up to him for knowledge, wisdom, manners, morals inspiration, enlightenment, and so on.
A teacher performs many functions in the classroom for the comprehensive development of the students. Teacher keeps the students safe, decides what is important for the students to learn, presents a rich and organized body of information to students, protects and improves the students' self-esteem, provides an environment for the students to explore a variety of experiences, helps students to use technology-related tools to accomplish certain tasks, makes sure that the students are prepared for the next level of education, loves and nurtures the students.
Teacher can influence his students since students believe him as a trusted source of knowledge. If a teacher is incompetent and the students follow him, they will grow up with a 'wrong' understanding about certain knowledge. There are many cases a student comes home with a wrong understanding and when parents are trying to correct it, they will say "But my teacher said so. My teacher can't be wrong". Therefore, the competence of teachers should be improved.
It is mentioned in the first chapter Of Act of the Republic of Indonesia Number 20, Year 2003 On National Education System with the One and Only God's Mercy President of the Republic of Indonesia that educators mean teaching staffs who have the qualification to be teachers, lecturers, counselors, learning guides (pamong belajar), senior instructors (w idyais-wara), tutors, instructors, facilitators, and other titles in accordance with their specialization, and who participate in the provision of education. Laurence D. Hazkew and Jonathan C. Me Lenon in Hamzah B. Uno (2007 : 15) say that a teacher is a professional person who conducts classes. Still in Hamzah B. Uno (2007 : 15), Jean D. Grambs and C. Morris Me. Clare define teachers as persons who consciously direct the experiences and behavior of an individual so that education takes place. By the definition above, it can be synthesized that a teacher is a professional person and therefore, they are expected to have professional competence.
A teacher, as a professional educator, should fulfill 3 requirements : (1) having academic qualification, (2) having competency, (3) having teacher certificate (Diknas, 2006 : 4). The competency of teacher can be classified into four areas of competency, namely : pedagogical, personal, professional, and social competency. In brief, each competency encompasses the following : (1) the pedagogical competency is a teacher's ability to manage students' learning which includes lesson plan, learning evaluation, and students' potency actualization (2) the personal competency includes demonstrating certain characteristics, such as faith and devoutness, stability, maturity, sensibility, etc. Teacher should be critical and skeptical in doing his duty to deliver his lesson (3) the social competency is teachers' ability to be part of the community such as communicating and socializing effectively with students, fellow teachers, teaching staff, and students' parents. (4) The professional competency is teachers' ability to master science, engineering, and/or art (in other words, content or subject knowledge).
As a part of efforts to enhance the academic qualification and competence of teachers, the ministry of education provided scholarships to 170,000 teachers to attain their university diplomas in 2007. Every scholarship recipient was allotted Rp 2 million per year. A total of 12,065 lecturers were also granted scholarships to finish their master and doctoral degrees. This program cost the government Rp 236.6 billion in 2007.
Another program which is set by the government in order to enhance the competency of teacher is the teacher certification program. Teacher certification is a process of giving an educator certificate to teachers who have fulfilled the requirements (Samani et al, 2008 : 1). The goals of this program are : (1) to determine the qualification of a teacher in doing his duty as a professional educator, (2) to enhance the process and result of teaching and learning, (3) to increase the welfare of teachers, (4) to raise teacher's prestige; in the effort of creating a qualified national education.
Teachers who have been certified will get profession subsidy as big as their main salary. It is expected that this policy will encourage teachers to work professionally and improve their teaching quality so that the goal of education can be reached. This program began in 2007 and was aimed at ensuring that state teachers have pedagogic, professional, social and personal competence. It is also being applied to 210,600 contract teachers as the government plans to appoint all of them as civil servants by 2008 at the latest.
The teacher certification program is based on the Act of the Republic Indonesia number 14/2005 on Teacher and Lecturer, the Act of the Republic Indonesia number 20/2003 on National Education System, and the regulation of National Education Minister Number 18/ 2007 about teacher certification. Government believes that this program is the right medicine for the poor quality and payment of education. Launched in 2006, the program is aimed at certifying 2.7 million state and private school teachers in 2015.
Nowadays, many teachers have been certified, either by portfolio assessment or by attending teacher training. By passing this program, it is believed that they have good capabilities in teaching their students. It is proved by the documents they submit and teaching assessment by the evaluator. Certified teachers are believed to perform better than teachers who have not been certified. People assume that they have enough competencies in teaching. Educators, policy makers, media, and public equate teacher quality with teacher certification.
In fact, many teachers do not follow the process of teacher certification program fairly. There are some cases of deceit done by the teacher certification program participants. Take as an example, a few months ago there was a teacher who was excluded from the certification process by the evaluator because he was found copying other's scientific writing in order to fulfill the teacher certification requirements. It is only one example of many deceits found during the teacher certification program.
The other case is that teachers perform their best only during the program but not after it. Teachers have high motivation to arrange lesson plans and attend any seminars related to their major. The problem is that they do these activities not because they want to enhance their quality of teaching but because they want to pass the certification program and get the profession subsidy. Much skepticism appears from different people related to the teacher certification program. The validity of teacher certification program is being questioned. They are not sure whether teachers who have passed the teacher certification program are really professional teachers, teachers who are eligible to teach. Many assumptions state that teacher certification program is only a waste of time and money since teachers are only interested in the high salary without any quality improvement.
Teacher certification is like a candle in the dark for teachers since it offers a raise of profession subsidy for teachers. On the other hand, government hopes that by the process of teacher certification, teachers will be encouraged to improve their quality in teaching, not only during the process of certification but also after the process. Many teachers have high motivation to give their best performance during the teacher certification program. But, whether they keep their best performance after the process is the question that the researcher also deals with. In this research, the researcher is interested to find out the extent of teacher certification affects the quality of English teaching and learning process.
Since the main purpose of teacher certification program is to enhance the professionalism of teachers, certified teachers should be teachers who are professional and vice versa. However, there have been many rumors saying that certified teachers do not always lead to professionalism. These rumors may come arise because the phenomenon showing that teachers do not make lesson plan, use various method in teaching, make use of media, or arrange a good evaluation mechanism. Therefore the researcher is interested to conduct the study in SMAN X. The researcher chooses SMA N X as the object of the study because it represents the requirement for conducting the research since all of the English teachers in SMA X have been certified. The writer is eager to find out the extent of teacher certification affects the quality of English teaching and learning process in SMA N X.
B. Formulation of the Problem
In harmony with the background of the study exposed, the problem of this study is formulated as follow :
To what extent does teacher certification affect the quality of English teaching and learning process at SMA N X?
C. The Objective of the Study
Based on the formulation of the problem, this research is aimed at identifying to what extent the teacher certification can effectively affect the English teaching and learning process.
D. The Benefits of the Research
This research is mainly intended to find out the extent of teacher certification affect the quality of English teaching and learning process. It will be fruitful not only for the certified teachers but also the uncertified teachers and the government. The result of the research is expected to be able to give some advantages classified as follows.
For the researcher, this research is expected to give a good understanding about teacher certification and its effects on the English teaching and learning process. The results of the research are expected to be significant considerations in enhancing the quality of English teaching and learning process. In addition, this study also sharpens the inquiry of the researcher in doing research.
For the teachers, this research will provide them some basic information about teacher certification program. This research will provide information for the teachers about the teacher certification mechanism and what should be done as further implications of teacher certification. With this in mind, it is expected that teachers who have been certified can teach their students better than before and develop themselves in order to perform their best in the classroom. And for the teachers who have not been certified, it is hoped that by reading the result of this study, they will understand how they should attend the teacher certification program and what they should do after the program. This study is also hoped to give motivation for the uncertified teachers to always improve their competencies.
For the government, this research provides some authentic data about teacher certification program and its effect on the quality of English teaching and learning process. The data include the teachers' lesson plan, result of interview with the teachers, and the result of classroom observation. Therefore, it is hoped that the government can take the result of this research into consideration for the betterment of teacher certification program and the development of teacher professionalism.
Posted: 05 Sep 2011 08:59 PM PDT
(KODE : PENDBING-0004) : SKRIPSI AN ANALYSIS ON THE SPEAKING CLASSROOM INTERACTIONS AT THE TENTH GRADE OF SMA NEGERI X
1. Background of the Study
In the classroom students do their educational activity - learning - but they also do another activity like playing and socializing with their friends. Classroom is a small miniature of wide society filled in with many elements. Classroom is a real social context where its elements (teacher and learner) enter into equally real social relationship each other, but, in the sense of education, it's an artificial environment for teaching, learning, and using a foreign language.
The process of teaching and learning is the most common element in the language classroom. Language teaching, in a simple word, can be defined as the activities which are intended to bring about language learning. It is assumed that language teaching is proposed to help people to learn and use the language. According to Dewey in Risk (1985 : 6), language teaching is the direction or the guidance of learning. Learning, as every body knows, refers to the acquisition of knowledge and skill. Based on these definitions, then, language learning will be placed in appropriate definition as the learning to have knowledge and skill in language.
The process of teaching and learning almost occurs in the classroom. Tsui (1995 : 1) defines classroom as a place where more than two people gather together for the purpose of learning, with one having the role of the teacher. Classroom is not a place where the teacher just carries out predetermined routines, but rather than a place where various elements interact one another. These elements are the teacher with their educational background, the students, experience, knowledge, and expectation and also the activity in the classroom.
Language learning occurs through meaningful interaction. Interaction, then, will certainly involves students. In other words, it can be said that language learning is a two-way interaction between all the elements in class. Those elements handle the same significant role in deciding whether the learning will achieve its aim or not. Each element cannot dominate the others. The teacher, then, handles a significant role in creating an atmosphere that stimulates students to participate in the classroom. The teacher also has to plan certain activities and interactions in order to achieve or produce a particular behavioral outcome.
According to Anderson, as quoted by Skinner (1984 : 4-6), the teacher's role in the classroom can be described under three broad categories : (1) Selecting and organizing material (The teacher has to select and organize the material to be learned); (2) Guiding and directing learning; and (3) Evaluation to know how well he has done as a teacher and how well his students have learned.
One important element, besides the teacher, is the students that also play many significant roles. In the language classroom, the students can be positioned as object; but sometime they have to put themselves as subject. It means that they are not only as receiver but also as an independent one who can speak up, give ideas, and contribute to language in the classroom. As Chaudron's opinion (1998 : 9) learners have their own initiative, productivity, and strategies in classroom learning rather than passive absorption of the teachers' information of precise adherence to the performance of classroom activities.
In the speaking classroom, the teacher and the students have significant roles to the process of teaching and learning. These elements (teacher and students) constantly interact one another in which the teacher and the students are the main subjects. In speaking class, the teacher is not allowed to dominate the class where he keeps talking or giving more question. Each element has as much to contribute as very other participant in determining the direction and outcome of the interaction.
Interaction simply means communication which implies more than one person. The importance of interaction is explained by Rivers (1981 : 160-162) : "Through interaction, students can increase their language store as they listen to or read authentic material, or even the output of their fellow students in discussion, skits, joint problem solving tasks, or dialogue journals. In interaction, students can use all they possess of the language -all they have learned or casually absorbed - in real-life exchange. Even at an elementary stage, they learn in this way to exploit the elasticity of language" (Brown, 1994 : 159).
Ellis (1988 : 94) states the role of interaction into following points : (1) when learners are addressed by fully component speakers of language, the latter adjust both the formal and discourse levels of the language they use. Learners also employ certain strategies to enable communication to take place; (2) there is insufficient evidence to decide whether these interactional modifications are responsible for the route learners follow in Foreign Language Development (FLD) or Second Language Development (SLD), although it would seem unlikely that those are the major determining factors. There is an evidence to suggest that the types of learners' interactions developed by the influence of the rate progress; and (3) Interaction contributes to development because it is the means by which the learner is able to crack the code.
In the speaking classroom, interaction should be encouraged. In other words, it is the teacher's responsibility to promote the interactive language teaching in the class. In the interaction, however, teacher should not dominate the class, instead facilitate students in practicing speaking as much as they possibly can. As Rivers says :
"For the genuine interaction language learning requires, however, individuals (teachers as well as students) must appreciate the uniqueness of other individuals with their special needs - not manipulating or directing or deciding how they can or will learn, but encouraging them and drawing them out (educating), and building up their confidence and enjoyment in what they are doing". (1987 : 9)
From the explanation above, we know that interaction in the language classroom is very important in the process of teaching and learning. In the speaking classroom, how the teaching-learning process run well also depends on the interaction between the teacher and the students. Therefore, understanding the interaction happening in the speaking classroom is also very important. Based on the description above, the writer is interested to study the interaction in a language classroom - especially speaking - of the tenth grade in the Senior High School.
2. Identification of the Problem
Related to the background of the study, there are some problems that may arise. The writer identifies the problems as follows :
a. How is the English teaching process at SMA Negeri X?
b. How is the English learning process at SMA Negeri X?
c. How is the interaction between the teacher and the students in the Speaking classroom?
d. What kinds of feedback does the teacher use in the speaking classroom interaction?
e. What are the problems faced by the teacher in the speaking classroom interaction?
f. What can English teacher do to overcome the problems?
g. How can the teacher and the students overcome the problems?
3. Limitation of the Problem
In order to reach the expected goal, the writer limits the problems on the following terms :
a. The study is limited to the pattern of interaction happening in the speaking classroom.
b. The writer stresses the analysis on the percentage of teacher's talk and student's talk in the speaking classroom interaction.
c. The population of the research is limited to the tenth grade students of SMA Negeri X.
The method used in this study is descriptive method and the data are analyzed by using FLint system.
4. The Formulation of the Problem
The problem discussed can be stated as follows :
a. How is the percentage of the teacher's talk and the student's talk occurring in the speaking classroom interaction?
b. What patterns of interaction happen in the speaking classroom interaction?
c. What kinds of problems occur in the speaking classroom interaction?
5. The Benefit of the Study
From this study, it is expected that the result of the research can give a contribution to the language teaching and learning in general. To the researcher, many new valuable experiences in language education are useful for her preparation to be an English teacher in the future. To the teacher and the students, this study is very useful because they will get much information related to their activities in the classroom, especially in what patterns are the interactions between the teacher and the students happened in the speaking classroom. The teacher can also identify the problems arising in the speaking interaction and able to overcome them. Hopefully, the description of the interaction in the speaking classroom can give a valuable input to improve the quality of language teaching and learning.
Posted: 05 Sep 2011 08:51 PM PDT
(KODE : PENDBING-0003) : SKRIPSI A STUDY ON TEACHING-LEARNING ACTIVITIES AT A DESIGNATED INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SCHOOL
A. Background of Study
Government has paid attention to the education for a long time. It can be seen from the government's seriousness in constructing the constitution including education problem. Its seriousness is stated in the opening part of the constitution that is :
"Tujuan pembentukan Pemerintah Negara Indonesia adalah melindungi segenap bangsa dan seluruh tumpah darah Indonesia dan untuk memajukan kesejahteraan umum, mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa, dan ikut melaksanakan ketertiban dunia yang berdasarkan kehidupan bangsa, dan ikut melaksanakan ketertiban dunia yang berdasarkan kemerdekaan, perdamaian abadi dan keadilan sosial" (Constitution Opening)
To reach one of the aims as stated above, that is to develop nation's mind, can be done through education. In accordance to the aim of the state, education is also regulated in the body of the constitution.
"(1) Setiap warga Negara berhak mendapat pendidikan; (2) Setiapwarga Negara wajib mengikuti pendidikan dasar dan pemerintah wajib membiayainya; serta (3) Pemerintah mengusahakan dan menyelenggarakan satu sistem pendidikan nasional yang meningkatkan keimanan dan ketaqwaan serta akhlak mulia da lam rangka mencerdaskan kehidupan bangsa." (1945 Constitution section 31)
Government realizes how important qualified education in Indonesia is, therefore, government has to make serious efforts to improve the quality of national education. People's need for getting more and more towards qualified education shows that education has become one of powerful and authoritative social life institutions, and also has important and strategic role in developing the country. Education has given significant contribution in developing the country from one period to another period, either before or after the independence of Indonesia. Various studies and experiences show that education gives broad benefits to nation's existence. Education can create educated people who become the main pillar to develop prosperous society. Education has improved people's awareness in order to make harmony and tolerance in diversity, and also to strengthen social cohesion and place nationality insight to create democratic people. In the other side, education also gives real contribution toward economic growth through educated workers mastering technology and having abilities.
Education has an important role to develop the country. To make it better, government has many innovations to improve the quality and create qualified students in order to continue to higher and better education. One of the innovations made by the government is to provide schools which refer to international standard. It is called Designated International Standard School. It is the implementation of national education regulation system year 2003, arising as the command for each region to have the International Standard School which refers to national and international curriculum.
This kind of school has firstly been available since 2006 and the rule underlining it is the legislation number 20 year 2003 section 50 sentence 3 stating that "Pemerintah dan/atau Pemerintah Daerah menye-lenggarakan sekurang-kurangnya satu sekolah pada semua jenjang pendidikan untuk dikembangkan menjadi sekolah yang bertaraf Internasional" (www.depdiknas.com).
There are some new inputs in the Designated International Standard School which makes it different from other national schools; that is, the use of English as the instructional language, air conditioner-classroom, multimedia facilities, letter-U seats, and limited students. Since English is used as the instructional language, automatically one of the selection tests to join in this school is English proficiency test like TOEFL. The reason of developing the Internationally Standard School is to increase the education level both primary and secondary education in order to be equal with other developed countries.
There are some languages used in this school, including Indonesian and English in which the use has been ruled in the regulation. Language has broad functions such as to communicate, to exchange, to convey meaning, etc. Language is a system of communication by sound, operating through the organs of speech and hearing among members of a given community and using vocal symbols possessing arbitrary conventional meanings. (Pei, 1966 : 141 as stated in Brown, 1994 : 4).
The Designated International Standard School uses English as the instructional language for certain subjects such as Mathematics and Science. Since Indonesian language is the mother tongue, and English is the foreign language, the school will face a difficulty to use English as the instructional language in teaching and learning activities.
Teaching means guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn, and setting the conditions for learning (Brown, 1994 : 7), it means in teaching there is communication between teacher and students. Communication means the exchange and negotiation of information between at least two individuals through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, oral and written models, and production and comprehension processes (Richards and Schmidt, 1983 : 4). To make communication among them is not an easy thing. The language used should be effective in order that the materials can be transferred and understanding can be reached.
Since this school is a new program in our country, how it is run and implemented is still in question. The language used in which English should be used in teaching Mathematics and Science is also questioned. The main questions are how English is used in the Designated International Standard School and how it can make a good communication. This communication can be seen by the interaction between the teacher and students, and among the students. Good communication means that the materials can be transferred well; no misunderstanding between the teacher and student; no misunderstanding dealing with the materials; and also enabling learners to learn.
Based on the consideration above, the researcher is interested in carrying out A Study on Teaching-Learning Activities at Designated International Standard School (A Descriptive Qualitative Study at Designated International Standard School, SMPN X).
B. Problem Statements
Based on the background of the study above the problems are formulated, as follows :
1. How is the use of English in teaching-learning activities at the Designated International Standard School?
2. What are the strengths and the weaknesses in using English as instructional language in teaching-learning activities at the Designated International Standard School?
C. The Objectives of the study
The objectives that will be obtained in this research are :
1. To describe the use of English in teaching-learning activities at the Designated International Standard School.
2. To describe whether the use of English in teaching-learning activities at the Designated International Standard School can make the teachers and students communicate well.
3. To describe the strengths and the weaknesses of the use of English in teaching-learning activities at the Designated International Standard School.
D. Benefits of the Study
The research result is expected to be able to give some benefits, such as the following :
1. The study will give a clear description about the use of English in teaching learning activity at the Designated International Standard School.
2. The study will give clear description how far the teachers and students communicate during the lesson in which they use English as an instructional language.
3. The study will generally provide contribution for the improvement in using English as instructional language in teaching learning activities.
Posted: 05 Sep 2011 08:43 PM PDT
(KODE : PENDBING-0002) : SKRIPSI A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY ON CLASSROOM INTERACTION OF ENGLISH TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS IN THE LARGE CLASSES OF THE FIRST YEAR STUDENTS IN SMA X
A. Background of the Study
Language teaching is a complex activity, and that this complexity derives primarily from the diversity of perceptions and the goals of the various participants who play a role in the teaching learning process (Tudor, 2001 : 43). Indeed, if all participants have the same perceptions about the nature and the goal of language teaching, teaching would be much clearer and easier to be undertaken than it generally is. By so doing, there would be no gap between the teacher and students. Thus, language teaching can be understood in term of interactions of different rationalities of the teacher and students rather than enactment of a single rationality.
Classroom, as stated by Gaies in Amy B.M. Tsui's book in tittled "Introducing Classroom Interaction", is called as 'crucible' in which elements interact. These elements are the teacher and the students (1995 : 5). Then Allwright and Bailey (1996 : 18) also aids that students also bring with them to the classroom their whole experience of learning and of life, along with their own reasons for being there, and their own particular needs that they hope to see satisfied. The teacher brings experience of life and learning, and of teaching too.
In the classroom, the place where the teaching-learning process is undertaken, there are a variety of different potential perspectives of the nature and the goals of language teaching meet and interact. Hence, it can be an important factor to reach the goal of the instruction (Tudor, 2001 : 47). Besides, Val Lier also stated that there are greater attentions in educational teaching that language learners should have effective involvement to practice their communicative skill because language is a means of communication and self-expression. That is a medium by which members of a speech community express concepts, perceptions, expectations, and values which have significance to them as members of a speech community. In other word, classroom can be a place where students can express their personal problems and concerns. Within this perception, the classroom is conceptualized to create a condition where students can improve their ability in learning English that is for using the English for the real communication. And even, classroom itself is a part of the real world of students as individuals and social actors. Then, communication is not just something that happens "out there" but also process which occurs in the social environment, which we call the classroom (p. 115).
In adition, William Littlewood (1981 : 93) also states that :
"The development of communicative skills can only take place if learners have motivation and opportunity to express their own identity and to relate with the people around them. It therefore, requires a learning atmosphere which gives them a sense of security and valves as individuals. In turn, this atmosphere depends to a large extent on the existence of interpersonal relation slips which do not create inhibition, but are supportive and accepting"
With these visions of the classroom, there should be an effective interaction between teacher and students, and among students themselves in improving their knowledge and skills for the use at some stage in the future. Coleman (1996 : 88) also states that language teaching needs improvement of using English as the target language. Therefore, the successful realization of the language for communication depends on the genuine students' involvement in the relevant teaching learning activity.
For achieving the visions as the writer states above, good atmosphere of teaching-learning process is very required, especially in the English classroom where the dynamic interaction of teacher and students in the class is implemented, where the network of shared meaningfulness, which binds together in the mind of teacher and students emerges (Tudor, 2001 : 45).
In the large class, however, where the number of students and a range of factors such as the rapport of the classroom's participants, physical condition and seating become a problem, to get dynamic conditions of teaching-learning process is far from the ideal. Therefore, it is a big challenge to organize the classroom in order to create an effective language classroom interaction for the teaching-learning process.
Wagner (p.234), then also says "I should get every learner to talk much more, but that is impossible with 30 learners in my class". Therefore, for creating an interactive learning process between teacher and her/his students, innovations in teaching English are very much needed.
In such classes too, it will be unrealistic to expect more than a blackboard and a supply of chalk. The rows of heavy desk would be a constraint on group work, and coping with the noise, persuading the class to use English, managing the introduction and setting up of activities, making limited resources go a long way, and monitoring the work of individual within the class will also be management problems (David Cross, 1995 : 5).
Hence, the writer tends to know whether there is a dynamic process of teaching and learning in the classroom or not. Thus, as a place of communication, language classroom should become a place which would allow all students to practice the communicative skills that they would need to use in the real interactive situations outside the classroom. Besides, the real students' involvement in the relevant learning activities / the assumptions that students should be more active and participatory is the parameter of successful realization of an experiential approach to language learning. Therefore, it becomes a big attention to the writer (Tudor, 2001 : 113).
To the classroom, students will come with certain expectations as to what a good classroom should be, and of the role the teacher plays within it. They also expect the teacher to have something solid to offer them the terms of professional knowledge and experience of language learning options (p. 110). Here, the teacher does play an important role. A good teacher therefore, is one who can breathe life into methodological procedures in pursuit of the learning objectives set out in the curriculum. Whereas the student role is defined as the nature of students' participation in the classroom : their participation is therefore channeled through the assumptions about the nature of language and of language learning found in the methodological being used (p. 106). In addition, the relationship between the teacher and the students also becomes the light for the writer to conduct the research.
In order to know more about classroom interaction of English teaching-learning process in the large classes, a descriptive method is suitable to be conducted because it looks deep at the relationship between teacher and students in the form of classroom interaction, that is when the teacher asks question, give explanation, feedback, error treatment and when the students listen to the teacher's instruction and explanations, when they express their views, answer questions and carry out the tasks and activities, etc. Besides that, it is also aimed to know the opportunities of the students' involvement for practicing their knowledge and skills in the teaching-learning process, the role of the teacher and the students in the classroom, and also to know the effectiveness of English teaching-learning process. In addition, its qualitative, interpretive nature helps the writer to realize this complexity in perspective. In short, a descriptive research is very important to help the writer understand the view of those problems and find route through it.
From the description above, the writer is interested in carrying out the study on "A Descriptive Study on Classroom Interaction of English Teaching-Learning Process in the Large Classes of The First Year Students in SMAN X"
B. Identification of The Problem
Having given the background of the study, the writer would like to identify the problems as follows :
1. How is the form of classroom interaction in the large classes?
2. How are the teacher talk and the students talk in the large classes?
3. How are the opportunities of the students in the front zone and in the back zone of large classes?
4. How is the atmosphere of English teaching-learning process in the large classes?
5. Does the teacher encourage the students to engage in the English teaching learning process?
6. Are the students actively involved in the English teaching-learning process?
7. How is the rapport between the teacher and the students in the classroom interaction in large classes?
8. How are the teacher and the student role in the classroom interaction of large classes?
C. Limitation of The Problem
The study has a broad scope and it is impossible for the writer to handle all of the problems. Therefore, the writer limits the study as follows :
1. The form of Classroom Interaction in large classes of the first students in SMAN X.
2. The opportunity of the students in the front zone and in the back zone of large classes of the first students in SMAN X.
3. The rapport between teacher and students in the classroom interaction in large classes of the first students in SMAN X.
4. The teacher and students role in the classroom interaction of large classes of the first students in SMAN X.
D. Problem statement
Based on the problem limitation above, the problem statement in "a Descriptive Study on The Classroom Interaction of English Teaching Learning Process in Large Classes of The First Year Students SMAN X" is as follows :
1. How is the form of Classroom Interaction in large classes of the first students in SMAN X?
2. How are the opportunities of the students in the front zone and in the back zone of large classes of the first students in SMAN X?
3. How is the rapport between teacher and students in the classroom interaction in large classes of the first students in SMAN X?
4. How are the teacher and students role in the classroom interaction of large classes of the first students in SMAN X?
E. The Purpose of The Study
The research is conducted to describe the classroom interaction of English teaching-learning process in large classes of the first year students in SMAN X. The implication in this research includes the form of classroom interaction, the students' opportunity in teaching-learning process, the rapport between teacher and students, and also the student and teacher role in the process of teaching-learning process. Furthermore, it is also aimed to know more about the effectiveness of English teaching-learning process in the large classes, that is by describing the weakness and the strength of the classroom activities.
F. The Benefit of The Study
From this study, it is expected that the results of the research can give contribution to the improvement of the effective English teaching-learning process in general.
For the English teacher, especially the teacher of SMAN X, the results of this research can be used as a reflection about all his/her duties that have been done as long. As everybody knows, the daily hard work of the teacher often becomes an obstacle to make a reflection to what they have been taught in the class. By so doing, the teacher would become more responsible to improve their teaching skills in term of being more creative, innovative, and skillful in conducting the classroom. Moreover, it is also hoped that the teacher would be able to create a very convenient classroom to study. Within these efforts, they would be escaped from the "daily mechanics" activities.
Besides, for the writer, some benefits, which can be reached from this research is that it may give many new valuable experiences in English teaching-learning process for the preparation of the future ideal. In addition, it can give deep understanding about the nature of English teaching-learning process in the large classes like what have been conducted in Indonesia as long.
Posted: 05 Sep 2011 08:41 PM PDT
(KODE : PENDBING-0001) : SKRIPSI THE COOPERATIVE LEARNING THREE-STEP INTERVIEW TOWARDS STUDENTS SPEAKING ABILITY
English language teaching, for more than six decades of research and practice, has identified the four skills—listening, speaking, reading, and writing—as the most important parameter in the textbooks or curriculum development. The textbook or curricula used tends to focus on one or two of the four skills (Brown, 2001). The teaching process above is used in the English language teaching from elementary to the high school curriculum development.
In fact, many senior high school students still cannot explain certain procedure fluently in English when they are asked to do or make something. So, the teacher should be smart to choose an approach or technique of teaching that is suitable with the condition and the needs of the students. As a result, the goal of teaching and learning can be achieved. Therefore, this issue has become a dilemma for most English curriculum developers in finding the best approach to teach English in order to enable the students' competence to communicate in English both spoken and written successfully (Burkart, 1998).
Cooperative learning is a teaching strategy in which small teams, each with students of different levels of ability, use a variety of learning activities to improve their understanding of a subject. Each member of a team is responsible not only for learning what is taught but also for helping teammates learn, thus creating an atmosphere of achievement. Students work through the assignment until all group members successfully understand and complete it (Kagan, 1994).
A three-step interview is defined as a cooperative learning technique which enables and motivates members of the group to acquire certain concept deeply by students' role. It is an adaptable process in the classroom. The aim of this technique is to gather students in a conversation for analysis purpose and new information synthesis (Kagan, 1994).
Regarding to the explanation above, there should be a technique which is effective to improve student's mastery of English language, especially speaking ability. Due to what most English teachers of senior high school deliver the materials which is dominated by grammar focus, students cannot speak fluently because lack of practice and use of spoken English itself. In line with it, this study is expected to prove whether a cooperative learning : three-step interview is effective to improve students' speaking ability.
2. Reasons for Choosing the Topic
The researcher chose this topic to examine the effectiveness of the cooperative learning : three-step interview in improving students' achievement especially on active speaking ability. So far as the researcher knew that there had not been a study about this issue. This study would be undertaken through experimental study.
To measure the effectiveness of Three-Step Interview in this research, the writer would use speaking test as the research instrument. Florezz & Cunningham (1999) state that speaking is one the important skills in language learning. Inside the classroom, it is used twice as often as listening and the most often used skill (Brown, 2001).
In line with it, Dawson (1975) states that speaking is truly basic skill in language learning. Oral language or speaking is truly basic in the preschool. Furthermore, speaking is basic because in the everyday affairs of life, it is used more frequently than written communication. Moreover, speaking is fundamental aspect of spoken language that similar to those of written communication. However, people speak first instead of both reading and writing.
On the other hand, three-step interview is still rarely used in the English teaching process. It can be an alternative strategy instead of classical teaching model. This technique would be tried to be applied to the students of senior high school and whether it was effective or not to improve their ability on active speaking.
3. Statement of the Problem
In relation with the importance of speaking in learning new language and also because of speaking can be one of the factors that determine someone success in learning the language, so this study was intended to find out the cooperative learning : three-step interview towards student's speaking ability. The research questions will be directed to :
1. Is the cooperative learning : three-step interview effective to improve senior high school students' speaking ability?
2. To what extent the cooperative learning : three-step interview is effective in teaching speaking?
4. Scope of the Study
The main concern in this study was regarding how the cooperative learning : three-step interview could be carried out and used to the students of senior high school. The three-step interview itself was used for the treatment in the experimental group.
In testing speaking, there would be four aspects that were going to be tested : pronunciation, vocabulary, fluency, and procedural generic structure (grammar) which covered present tense, imperative sentence, cause and effect, and sequencing. The tests would be conducted to the both experimental and control groups.
Furthermore, it would be very interesting to go along this process of English teaching-learning technique. Any aspects or cases could be possibly investigated during this study, but this study was designed to cover the three-step interview applied in SMAN X only. Specifically, it investigated whether the three-step interview technique effective or not in improving student's speaking ability.
5. Aims of the Study
Particularly, the study has some aims as follows.
1. To find out the use of cooperative learning : three-step Interview towards student's speaking ability.
2. To explore the extent of the cooperative learning : three-step interview in teaching speaking
6. Significance of the Study
The study is expected to :
1. Contribute to the English as Foreign Language (EFL) teaching model of the institution and the practice of foreign language teaching.
2. Develop student's and teacher's creativity in comprehending speaking skill.
The most common hypothesis that is used in experimental study is null hypothesis (Hatch & Farhady, 1982 : 85-86), which states that there is no difference between the sample and the population after receiving a special treatment. Therefore, this study put forward the null hypothesis as follows. "There is no difference between students' speaking ability in control and experimental groups after being given a Three-Step Interview."
8. Organization of the Paper
The paper is organized into five chapters as follows :
Chapter I : Introduction
This section contains introduction, which discusses background, reasons for choosing the topic, statement of the problem, scope of the study, aims of the study, significance of the study, hypothesis, organization of the paper, and clarification of the terms.
Chapter II : Theoretical Foundation
It contains theoretical foundation, which serve as the basis for investigating the research problems. The theoretical foundation covers the description of The cooperative learning : three-step interview towards Student's Speaking Ability.
Chapter III : Research Methodology
In this section, the researcher discusses the method and procedure of the study.
Chapter IV : Findings and Discussions
This chapter reports the findings and discussions of the study.
Chapter V : Conclusions and Suggestions
This chapter reports the conclusions and suggestions of the study.
9. Clarification of the Terms
The researcher will review several terms related to the study. The terms are :
1. Cooperative Learning is a learning model where students work in small group consists of six members collaboratively and the structure of group is heterogeneous (Slavin, 1995).
2. Three-Step Interview is a learning model in which consists of four members of students signed A, B, C, and D. Each member chooses another member to be a partner. During the first step individuals interview their partners by asking clarifying questions. During the second step partners reverse the roles. For the final step, members share their partner's response with the team (Kagan, 1994).
3. Speaking ability is a productive skill in oral mode (C.J. Orwig, 1991 : 1). It can also be defined as student's competence in producing oral mode.
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